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BACK POCKET FLASHER Paper or cardboard flapped attached to the right back pocket of jeans, used as a means of commpunicating the difference between denim fabrics, finishing, shapes and sizes. A strategic marketing tool, is so expresses a jeanswear brand’s images, featuring illustrations, copy and graphics that evoke such themes as western-style, American ‘50s, eco-consciousness, romance and high-tech.

BAEYER, Adolf von *1835 (Berlin, Germany) †1917,  German chemist who developed the first synthetic indigo dye in 1879, after many years of research. He then sold the patent to German company BASF AG.

BAGGY A style of jeans, loose and very wide. Elio Fiorucci is said to have invented the first baggy jeans back in 1978, during the Safety Jeans periods. Also called carrot.

BALL *1974; Italy/Germany; by CFM International Spa/Bellini Warenvertriebsgessellschaft mbH. Conceived by Aldo Ciavatta (CFM International Spa, Italy) and very popular in the early ‘80s, The line is regarded as teenager basic. From 1974 to 1985, Dutch Henri Fetter BV acquired the production and distribution rights for Benelux and started distribution in Germany in 1977. In 1989, when Ciavatta’s company was facing bankruptcy, Stefanel, aiming at the jeanswear market, rented all of its labels. Stefanel’s newly founded Compagnia Finanziaria Moda srl kept Ball until 1991, but after CFM International Spa’s declared bankruptcy and subsequent auction, The German Bellini agency (which had tried local distribution in 1987) bought the label worldwide, together with Closed.

BALL WARPING  A step in denim making in which the individual threads formed at spinning are combined for further processing. The yarn threads are pulled together into a single continuous strand and wound onto a wooden beam called a “ball warp”.

BANDANA  A colorful printed handkerchief complementing any jeans look. From the Hindu “bandhnu”, for a primitive tie dye technique. Cowboys’ bandannas were brightly colored squares tied around the neck or face to keep out dust. In the U.S. during the ‘50s and ‘60s they resurfaced with the revival of cowboy style. The ‘80s saw another comeback thanks to mucic idols Bruce Springsteen and Little Steven, who wore bandannas, typically printed in red and white or blue and white, wrapped around their heads. Also, Milan’s Paninari liked them at the neck or wrist or as headbands, and in the early ‘90s, rappers kept them tied under their baseball caps.

BANKRUPT CLOTHING COMPANY, UK  One of the major jeans retailers to make a reputation in the late ‘80s, Bankrupt runs nine stores, mainly in the north and Midlands. A denim specialist, it claims to have more than 300 styles of jeans of 100,000 pairs of denim in stock at any time, including 25,000 pairs of Levi’s. Founder Paul Caplan used to run The Jeanery chain in the early ‘80s with his father and brother, but Bankrupt is his own venture.

BAR TACKS  Closely spaced stitched that connect to form a band or a bar that reinforces the corners and edges of pockets, seams, tucks, belt loops and buttonholes.

BASF AG, Germany. The chemical group BASF (Badische Anilin-und Soda Fabrik) owns the patent monopoly on the production of synthetic indigo. The chemical formula invented by Adolf von Baeyer in 1878 for the indigo-equivalent dyestuff was immediately acquired by BASF. A process of industrial production was developed with great financial expenditure. The first indigo produced by chemical process was launced on the market in 1887

BELT BUCKLE Indispensable complement to any wstern or jeanswear look. Though seemingly ornamental its origins are practical: The hardships of western life called for comfortable but well-fitting pants. Consequently, strong leather belts and sturdy buckles became “vital” goods. As embroidery, studs and geometrical applications were added to belts, decorations started enriching buckles with scenes of life in the fields, rodeo images and local flora and fauna. The most expensive buckles are made of silver and adorned with precious stones, especially turquoise. Several leading European jeanswear brands, such as El Charro and Chambers, have made their fortunes starting as belt and leather goods importers.
BASICOS STUDIO, France. Charles Amzallag used his experience designing for his own company Brownie to form this Paris styling office responsible for about 70 collections each year in sportswear and jeanswear for clients such as Aviatic, Setrak and Big Star France/Made Engine. Looker Graphic Concept, their seasonal jeanswear trend book, is one of the only reports created by jeanswear specialists.

BASICS Easy pieces and perennial commercial favorites, including the five-pocket jeans, the western shirt and the bib’ n’ brace.

BECKARO *1936; USA/France; by Signoles SA. Originally a U.S. brand, created in Wyoming in the ‘30s and out of circulation since the ‘60s. The name was inspired by the bucking broncos, or “buckaroos,” of the rodeo. Jean-Michel Signoles of Chipie bought the label in the late ‘80s, and in 1991, he relaunched the brand from France. The collection is based around several original models, including the “Regular,” a five-pocket in Japanese denim, woven on old, narrow looms using mother cotton.

BELL BOTTOM A jeans style born in the late “60s popular in the ‘70s. Tight at the waist (sometimes lowered) and the thights, the trousers flare out from the knee down. Threatened to make a come back at the end of the ‘80s, but didn’t quite catch on.

BELL BOTTOM *1970; Italy; by Thun Srl. Born as one of the first indigenous Italian alternatives to American jeans. Bell Bottom was conceived by Roberto Francardo (later founder of CMF Trading Company) and  Francesco Famea. The line declined with the onset of the designer jeans wave. Its historical heritage was acquired in 1989 by Thun, where it is designed by Pierpaolo Savorelli, who has supervised the product’s creative aspects since the very beginning.

BELT LOOPS  Standard feature added to jeans when the belt replaced suspenders as the preferred method of holding up pants. Regular jeans have five to seven belt loops; other have double belt loops or additional loops at the back. Wrangler boasts extra wide belt. Levi Strauss added belt loops to the 501 in 1922, though the suspender buttons remained until 1937.

BENDIX JEANS *1975 †c.1980; Germany; by Bendix & Co. Modelle. The German label was significant in the ‘70s through a permanently up-to-the-minute collection and by utilizing the then outstanding French cut. Target groups were 15-to-30-year-olds. The label was discontinued in the late ‘70s or early ‘80s.

BENETTON *1965; Italy; by Benetton Spa. World famous Italian brand that has spread around the globe with a very individual form of “franchising” and an original concept: to sell piece-dyed knits in a variety of color assortments, at very good prices and with the turnover. Started in 1965, Benetton’s knitwear was soon supported by jeans and casualwear. The original jeans brand, launched in the 1974, was called Jean’s West; it soon became an independent retail chain, then closed at the beginning of the ‘80s. In 1987 Benetton’s jeans were baptized Type De Nîmes, and featured mainly classic pieces. In 1989 they were replaced by Anthology, A line that introduced ring denim and exposed selvage, and in 1990 the denim collection came to include Blue Family, which incorporated stonewashed fabrics, treated the jeans way. With 5,000 retail outlets in 80 countries, Benetton’s jeanswear business amounts to 2,500,000 pieces a year (1991).

BENNETON, Luciano *1935 ( Treviso, Italy ) An innovator who combines a strong commercial pragmatism with a visionary market sense and a “do good” ideology. The Benetton founder embodies his company’s success story, although it is really a family business. His intelligence and charismatic appearance have been a very convincing vehicle for the company’s rise.

BENSIMON DENIM *1991; France; by S.B.S. SA. The sophisticated work-inspired collection, with a distinctive paper loop tag held by a back pocket rivet, is a complement to Serge Bensimon’s highly successful Autour Du Monde sportswear line for men and women.

BENSIMON, Serge *1953 (Oran, Algeria) As both a designer and a retailer, Serge Bensimon had a great influence on jeanswear concepts in the ‘80s, although he didn’t start his own Bensimon Denim collection until 1991. In 1989, he opened a high-end, multi-label jeanery in Paris called Denim General Store, which inspired many others to do same. Bensimon developed his fashion instinct working with his father Simon’s military surplus business where, in the early ‘80s, he pioneered the revamping and redyeing of surplus items. In 1986, He turned surplus style into a sportswear collection called Autour Du Monde for men and women with a Paris shop followed by a string of free-standing shops and corners.

BERAN, Dieter A. *1935 (Germany) An expert in the jeans industry who was prominent on the market in the ‘70s and ‘80s. Among his greatest triumphs are the successful market positioning of the U.S. label Wrangler in Germany and the built-up of the German jeans label Pioneer. At the same time he was also renowned as a retailer. After various sales activities in the industry Beran turned independent in 1965 as a trade representative an took charge of the Wrangler label, among others. Impressed by his above-average turnover, the U.S. company appointed him manager for Germany and vice president for Europe in 1967. Under his management Wrangler become one of the leaders in the German jeans market. Beran left Wrangler in 1976 in order to devote more time to the retail business he started in 1966. Beran built up the Pioneer jeans label for the German company Ahlers in 1977 and helped the label to its ultimate success. In 1982 Beran gave up his position as managing director of Pioneer to concentrate on his retailing activity for his own chain of jeans shops, Western Store Beran GmbH.

BEST BLUE/DE VILLE *1984; Italy/Germany; by Delon Consultant Handels GmbH. Originally designed as a basic-oriented denim instant range in the medium price segment. Distributing company Heinrich Dattler GmbH first presented the young Italian label from De Ville Spa to the German jeans market in the February 1988. One season later the line was separated as a Young Fashion collection, and Best Blue became a pure denim line with good fits. De Ville was discontinued in spring 1990. Distribution for Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Scandinavia of the reformed casualwear-oriented Best Blue line has been via German-based Delon Consultant GmbH since 1990.

BEST COMPANY *1987; Italy; by Simint Spa. Originally designed by Olmes Carretti and produced by Alfredo Saltini’s Biesseci company, Best Company started as a sweatshirt label. Its success was meteoric, thanks to Carretti’s colorful flowery patterns, embroideries and ecological messages, which started a strong future trend. The resulting jeanswear line was joint venture between Saltini and Marcello Fratini, who formed a company called United Corporation. Having bought his label back, Saltini sold it to Simint in 1990. The line has a junior extension.

BEST DIRECTION *1984; UK; by Best Direction Ltd. A menswear collection from Second Image with a strong jeans element. Originally designed to by slightly more expensive complement to the populary priced womenswear line. Since the late ‘80s, it has been marketed as a European-produced, European-styled casualwear range.

BIB ‘N’ BRACE -> Dungarees, Overalls

BIG E Period jeans by Levi’s (1936-1971), considered the quintessential 501, with exposed selvage, natural indigo and ring fabric. So-called because the Levi’s name on the tab was spelled with a capital “E” (->Collector’s Items)

BIG-E *1991; by Big-E Project. The nickname given to the famous Levi’s period 501s was registered worldwide to brand a compact range of perennial jeans pieces, all of which quote original items, focusing on their fabrics, fit, proportions and details. The collection, licensed worldwide to CMF Trading, features three pairs of jeans, two western jackets, three rodeo shirts, chino trousers and vegetable-dyed T-shirts.

BIG JOHN *1968; Japan; by Big John Japan. High-grade basic jeanswear, specialized in innovative washes. Japan’s technological lead in stonewashing substantially contributed to the label’s rapid establishment. Big John gained its first successful export experience in Sweden in 1976. In the early ‘90s the key export markets were Benelux, Germany, Spain and Sweden.

BIG MILL *1981; Germany; by Lauffenműhle GmbH. Registered trademark and division of Lauffenműhle weavers. Starting point of the Big Mill idea was the recognition that growth-promoting strategies for the jeanswear market would have the come in the future from the weavers. With Bigg Mill, Lauffenműhle was aiming to create an image of its own as supplier to the jeanswear industry on the international market. First notable triumph came in the ‘80s with stretch denim, which was jointly developed with Du Pont. Already in 1986 Lauffenműhle could be counted as one of the sportswear industry. When Big Mill had given the weaving company the required denim competence, the trademark was no longer emphasized.

BIG STAR *1975; Germany; by Big Satr Holding AG Switzerland. In the early ‘80s, Big Star was on of the best-selling jeans labels in Switzerland. The young, fashionable jeans and sportwear line is stamped with the All American image. To reinforce this, the Big Star company surrounds the label with traditional U.S. labels for which it undertakes distribution. Since 1990, Pierre Morrisset has been designing the jeanswear collection, classed in three segments: Basics, Authenctic and the U.S. Legend model.

BIG STAR FRANCE *1975; France; by Mad Engine Sarl. Jeans brand that shines particulary bright in the women’s market, where it is credited with a great fit and good quality-price ratio. Mad Engine also produces jeans for children under the Little Big Star label. Big Star’s high profile in France is the product of teamwork beetween founder Alain Knafo and his brothers and sisters.

BIP *1971 1984; Germany; by Bierbaum-Proenen GmbH & Co. KG. One-time jeans label by the workwear manufacturer distributed only in Germany. With a pure denim trousers program for specialized jeans retailers, the family business entered the jeans market in 1971. The line was discontinued in 1984.

BISCOTE *1975; France; by Jack’ Sell Sarl. The line, with its better logo inspired by the legendary Babe Ruth, is known for its distinctive baggy overalls launched by Guy, Marcel and Jacques Zenou in 1982. The brand’s image also centers on Biscote’s successful down jackets and its strong women’s jeans. The company has its own shops in Paris and Cannes and in Okouama, Japan.

BLACK CHANGE BLUE Denim fabric made with black overdyed indigo warp yarn, it “fades” into deep blue after a number of washings.

BLACK DENIM  A denim weave using black yarn rather indigo. It fades to deep gray or to salt & pepper and has become a classic colour for jeans, preferred by tough urban guys and girls. Wrangler claims to have been the first  to introduce black denim back in 1950, producing the outfit for American TV character and rodeo hero Hopalong Cassidy.

BLACK PIZZA *1990; Italy; by Emanuel Spa. Initially designed by Tiziano Mazilli and Louise Michielsen, targeting 14-to-24-year-olds, the line started with strong styling and expensive packaging, but eventually become more commercial, with an eye to prices, while retaining a young trendy appeal.

BLEACH Essential ingredient in giving denim a faded look. Bleaching can be achieved with Hypochloride of Sodium or  Potassium Permanganate. The latter can leave a yellow tint that purists don’t like. (-> Pinto Wash Denim)

BLUE BELL INC. , USA; Original parent company of Wrangler wich was born when Blue Bell diversified into western wear in 1974. Blue Bell was acquired by VF Corp. In 1986, and Wrangler is operated as a seperate division. The history of the business that became Blue Bell goes back to 1916. To R.W. Baker and the Jellico Clothing Manufacturing Co. In Jellico, Tennesse. Through a series of expansions and mergers it became, in 1943, Blue Bell Inc. The firm was at one time considered to be “the United States Steel Co. Of the work clothes bussiness,” being largest maker of bib overalls, dungarees and work coats. Over 24 millions garments were produced by Blue Bell for the U.S. Armed Services during World War II, and after the war, Blue Bell diversified into the civilian clothes market, making pioneering efforts in sanforizing, proportioned fit and information labeling for apparel.

BLUE COLLAR A term denoting a working-class person, so-called becaouse of the shirt made of blue denim or chambray usually worn by workers.

BLUE DENIM BLIBLE  One of many non-apparel items that cashed in on the jeans craze of the early ‘70s. The King James version, in modern English, covered in denim and costing $1.95.

BLUE JEAN BY VENTILO *1988; France; by Ventilos SA. A collection of five-pocket jeans for women in indigo, colored denim and stripes which complements the heritage style for men and women. Designer Armand Ventilo and his brother, Jacques, have been active  s

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A pair of jeans can be personalized by a number of details: zipper, buttons, rivets, labels, leather tag, flag, size indicator, hang tag or back pocket flasher.

ACID WASH A very successful wash and a controversial issue. World famous, acid wash was first commercialized by the Italian firm Rifle, at Inter-Jeans in 1986. It turned into a boom and proliferated in a number of variations, but the process was actually patented by the Italian Candida Laundry company the same year. It consist of soaking pumice stones with chlorine and using their abrasive power to bleach jeans into sharp contrasts. Also known as moon, fog, marble, ice and frosted

*1981; France; by Latino SA. Created by Alain Knafo, who established Latino in 1988 after nine years with Big Star France/Mad Engine. Aqcuaverde has developed a reputation for basics in antique ring and left-hand denims.

A form of wet processing which, through prolonged abrasion, gives the garment and artificial aged look and a softer hand

AHMED, Shami
*1961 (Karachi, Pakistan) Entrepreneurial founder of the Manchester-based cult label The Legendary Joe Bloggs, Shami(he prefers being known simply by his first name) uses sports and music sponsorship, product placement and special events as well as conventional advertising to promote his brands. Bought to the UK at the age of two, he appears to have followed the advice of his father, Nizam, who set up the Pennywise cash-and-carry warehouse in Manchester: “If you’re going to aim high, you might as well for the sky”. Shami ambition is to repeat his British success abroad, with Germany as the first target.
Otto Albert Bekleidungswerke, Germany Manufacture of Marshal, one of the great jeans labels, which had  its peak in the ‘70s and ‘80s. The traditional coat producer, established in 1948, entered the jeans market in 1971. When the second generation took over the family business (1973 Wolfgang Albert, 1976 Cornelia Dussman-Albert) the commercial and mid-style jeans range was supplemented by fashionable sportswear. Jointly with the Austrian subsidiary, a second label, Albergo, was developed. In the early  ‘80s the company became heavily involved in foreign markets. In 1985 for the first time special women’s and men’s fits were offered. The British Vivat Holdings (which also owns Lee Cooper) took over Otto Albert Bekleidungswerke GmbH & Co. and management was restructured. Wolfgang Albert and Cornelia Dussman-Albert left the company. The new proprietor changed the collection makeup as well as the label name—from Marshal to Ken Marshal. The jeanswear label was repositioned as a lifestyle label, but had little success. 1991 saw the jeans label struggling for survival; Vivat Holdings withdrew financial backing and the company dissolved. Since then the Ken Marshal label has been continued through the independent Otto Albert Bekleidungswerke in Braunau, Austria.

Term referring to a type of sanding treatment in which the garment is shot allover with sand blasted from an airgun.

*1946 (Pamiers, France). The Heart and wandering soul of French jeanswear. Co-conspirator with Jean Elbaz in the colorful, eclectic image of French Cimarron since 1986. At age 20, working in secondhand buying and selling for the retail store Jess, Alpuente was on the Bordeaux docks as the U.S. forces were closing French bases, leaving tons of surplus behind. In 1971, he formed the jeanswear brand Liberto with partners Christian Dain, Joe Escaffit and Pierre Morrisset. This group lasted until 1974, when Alpuente left them for a hippy existence in Aix-en-Provence, where he designed a collection called Mémé Féé. A number of freelance design assignments followed, including the well-known Tristan Villeroy and Custer.

The industrial service company with headquarters in Heilbronn and an annual turnover of DM 60 Million (1990) is one of leading European textile finishers, its key customers being in the jeanswear industry. Founded in 1952 as a dry cleaner by Franz Alt Jr., the firm gave up dry cleaning when Franz Alt Jr. joined the firm in 1982. It then began to specialize in washing and dyeing denims and flat weaves. In the  ‘90s, the company’s technological know-how was aimed at developing environmentally compatible finishing methods. Alt Gruppe’s total service is unique and it has subsidiaries worldwide. Alt Textileservice GmbH (founded 1982) washes and dyes, Freshtex Textil-Finishing GmbH (1988) caters for finishing, and Texlog International GmbH (founded 1991 as a joint company with Spedition Schenker, Frankfurt) takes car of the logistics through to retail distribution. In 1991, the washing and dyeing capacity was expanded with the founding of Alt Textileservice GmbH in Hamburg. Alt Textil-Leasing GmbH and Sanitex GmbH are also part of the group

*1985; Italy; by Simint Spa. Born as a sweatshirt line designed by Olmes Carretti and originally produced by Biesseci for the activewear segment, American System was sold to Simint at the sam time as Best Company. It has grown into a complete collection that also features jeans and caters to younger consumer

*1960 (Lugo Di Romagna, Italy) A.n.g.e.l.o di Lugo Di Romagna is the pseudonym of real person (Angelo) who prefers concealing his full family name. Insiders of the denim trade know him as the largest Italian collector of secondhand jeans—about 1000 items, primarily Levi’s, Lee, and Wrangler, which he not only stores and cherishes but also rents, for four-month periods, to designers keen to study the secret of vintage denim. A.n.g.e.l.o.’s surplus collection, numbering 10000 items, including accessories, is presented to the public and connoisseurs in the vintage palace in the center of Lugo, where there is also a shop catering to customers driven by nostalgia.

*1980; Germany; by Fleckenstein Jeanswear GmbH. Modern basic jeanswear with emphasis on good fits for women. This specialization and its flexible trend statements have established the label in the medium price segment on the German market. Heidi and Reinhold Fleckenstein, company and label founders, are responsible for the concept. Production is in Italy. Sales are primarily to the German jenaswear specialist trade. A men’s counterpart collection, RF5, was created in 1991

*1987; Germany; by Animali Jeans & Casuals Fashion GmbH. The Animali philosophy is based on the longstanding retail experience of the two label founders Ebba and Isaac Rabinovitz. Settled in medium price segment, Animali offers basic-oriented jeanswear with fashion details, innovative fabrics and outstanding fits. The collection aimed at girl’s fits is distributed mainly in Germany, exclusively to specialized jeans retailers.

A jeans style, popularized by Rifle and others, that loose and baggy in shape.

A step in the finishing process, before sanforization, that corrects denim’s natural tendency to twist in the direction of the diagonal twill weave. Also known as skewing.

A denim finish achieved through sanding and washing, which gives an look to the garment. Antique is also a type of ring denim in the yarn is strongly uneven

* 1986; Italy; by Edwin International. Created by Elio Fiorucci, The jeans feature saddle stitching and ring fabrics, for those jeans aficionados who love the wild country and its free, natural lifestyle. Fiorucci calls it “the Hermes of jeans”.

APPLE JEANS (In Germany, *1978† c.1982); Japan; by Texwood. Apple Jeans was launched in Germany by Tuxedo GmbH, the Hamburg distributor, under license from Texwood, on of Hongkong’s biggest jeans manufacturers. The establishing of Apple Jeans as a classic label in jeanswear retailing prospered chiefly because of selective advertising activities. The label disappeared from German market in the early ‘80s.

AQUAWASH A denim fabric introduced by Italian textile company Montebello in 1990. It look like faded bleached indigo, but in reality is a red indigo denim (a lighter shade of blue), which makes the wash-down process easier.

*1973; Germany; by Otto Versand. Proven in-house label for the Hamburg mail-order firm Otto. Arizona Jeans for women, men, and children appear in the Otto main catalog (circ.1990/91: seven million) and in the more selective trend catalog. The jeans with the favorable price/quality ratio are available in Holland, Switzerland and Germany.

*1934 (Piacenza, Italy) Internationally known star of Italian fashion design who rose the fame in the early ‘80s, thanks largely to his innovative approach to jacket construction. His very successful jeanswear line, Armani Jeans, is considered to have been the first Italian designer jeans.

*1981; Italy; by Simint Spa. Due in part to Giorgio Armani’s commercial charisma, the line quickly established it self as an Italian bestseller, opening the path for the designer jeans era in Europe. The typical Armany Jeans is shapely, fitted at the waist and hips and loose on the legs. Recognizeable by its famous “eagle” logo, the collection normally features trendy pieces and innovative fabric and color ideas.

*1977; Germany; Kübler Bekleidungswerke GmbH & Co. Created in 1964 as a second label of the workwear producer who, with this label, started up production of fashionable jeanswear in 1977. In 1984, in order to better exploit this market segment, the company joined an Italian styling office, and since then has offered a fashionable women’s jeans range in the medium price segment. Distribution in Austria and Germany.

Formerly the European operation of Burlington USA, this Ireland-based manufacturer of heavyweight denim is jointly owned by Dutch group Ten Cate and French giant DMC. Main markets are Germany, France and the UK; Atlantic is known for its innovation at the middle to top end of the market. Among its claims are that it was the first European mill to produce blue/black denim, the first to introduce ultra-blues and the first to bring in high-contrast denims. New in 1991 was Retro, an open-end denim with a ring-spun look. Atlantic is licensed to use the Cotton USA mark.

Giant two-level store near Paris’ Place des Victoires which introduced the idea of jeans store as an event. Opened in 1991 by Jean-Michel Signoles of Chipie, Arnaud and Jacques Ventilo and Philippe Avanzi, the store features several shops-within-a-shop and includes everything from an antique jeans museum, vintage cars and motorcycles and rare records to old decorated plates from U.S. cafetarias and private clubs.

AUDIGIER, Christian
*1958 (GAP, France) One of France’s leading jeanswear designers and founder of the first jeanswear styling office, Topsider, later called Christian Audigier and His Gang. He began his career as manager of Jean Machine. Soon he was designing jeanswear for Mac Keen, then women’s wear for Fiorucci. In 1991, he redesigned the jeans and Young Fashion floor of Paris department store La Samaritaine.

A finishing process similar to vintage, using stonewashing or a cellulose enzyme wash, with or without bleach, for an old and worn look. Also a type of ring fabric in which the ring yarn has evident slubs.
A jeanswear adjective that became a marketing buzzword in the early ‘90s as the quest for original denim qualities swept the European market. Among the characteristics of “authentic” jeans are traditional fabric weaves and finishes and jeanswear styling details.

*1983; France; by Aviatic SA. Founder Michel Faraut has maintained Aviatic’s basic identity with models like “Vintege Button Fly” in heavy denim woven on old 70 cm looms. In 1988 Aviatic began exporting, notably to Japan, the U.S. and England, thanks to its timely introduction of the Used Wash.

*1975; USA; by Avirex Ltd. Originally in business as Cockpit, a catalog/store that specialized in reproductions of World War II flight jackets, Avirex later expanded into a wholesale line, which cam to include jeans. The line is classic in styling, with retro-American themes of authenticity, nostalgia and romance. The markets are menswear and juniors.

Denim producer based in Sylacauga, Alabama, with two mills in the U.S. Its product offerings are strictly all-cotton indigo, in 14 ¾ oz. and 11 ¼ oz. It has been manufacturing denim for nearly 100 years.

Armani Exchange. An ambitious retail program conceived in 1991 by Giorgio Armani and Simint Spa, with an eye toward conquering the American jeanswear market with strong price-point awareness and good basic styling.

*1957 (Algiers, Algeria) The founder of Charles Chevignon started with distressed leather blousons inspired by fighter pilots, which he perfected with the help of his cousin, designer Jean Elbaz, in 1979. Azoulay turned his fascination with Americana—his impressive collection includes American advertising art and Coca Cola vending machine—into France’s hottest logo-covered sportswear of the ‘80s. 


Invented a little over a century ago, jeans are the world’s most popular, versatile garment, crossing boundaries of class, age and nationality. From their origins as pure workwear, they have spread through every level of the fashion spectrum, embraced internationally for their unmatched comfort and appeal. Constantly in demand, they have survived the passing of both trends and time, capturing the ethos of each succeeding decade. While their charisma springs from their legendary American roots, their commercial strength rests on innovation and interpretation in the hands of jeanswear makers around the world. This Jeans Encyclopedia Blog that originally taken from The Magazine by Sportswear International, " THE JEANS ENCYCLOPEDIA " , The best of its kind, provides a comprehensive, insider look at the jeans and denim industry, with a special focus on the European market. A unique document, it is both tribute and indispensable working tool, a resource for all those involved in the business-veterans who will recognize their own contributions and refresh their memories as well as newcomers interested in acquiring essential knowledge. THE JEANS ENCYCLOPEDIA Blog, presented in an easy-to-access A to Z format, traces the evolution of jeanswear’s heritage, including profiles of existing and once-famous brands, leading companies and well-known personalities, historical facts, bestselling styles, fabric developments, technical definitions and more